Eschatology 101: Playlist For The Panmillennialist

Often when I teach Revelation, people are quick to let me know God’s got it worked out, so therefore this isn’t an important topic to study. Well, yes, it’s true that God does have it worked out. What people don’t realize is what we believe about end times affects our lives today. The easiest way to illustrate this is through songs. So I have a playlist on my phone entitled, “Eschatology” for just that purpose! J   I thought it might be a fun blog to share that playlist with you…

Let’s start with the familiar, Premillennial:

These songs in substance, gives us the view of “Be Ready” and how our world is getting worse.

“I Wish We’d All Been Ready” DCTalk

“I Am Sure” Michael W. Smith

“Leaving Eden” Brandon Heath

“Someday” Michael W. Smith

“End of the Book” Michael W. Smith


Marching onward, let’s look at Postmillennial:

These songs in substance, gives us the view of Spiritual Warfare and “Ushering in the Kingdom”.

“Storm The Forts of Darkness” The Singing Company

“The Battle Hymn of The Republic” Mormon Tabernacle Choir

“Onward Christian Soldiers” Mormon Tabernacle Choir

“Kingdom Comes” Sara Groves

“With Every Act of Love” Jason Gray


Lastly, let’s look at Amillennial:

These songs in substance, tells us about how to live in between “The Now and Not Yet”.

“A Little More Time To Love” Steven Curtis Chapman

“The Now and The Not Yet” Amy Grant

“Prepare The Way” Paul Wilbur

“Heaven In The Real World” Steven Curtis Chapman

If we are honest, the songs on the Premillennial list leave us quite discouraged. The world is getting worse, and there is nothing we can do and there will be no hope until Christ’s return. And even to get to Christ’s return, we must first go through a bunch of horrible, negative, and scary things (which actually promotes these horrible, negative, and scary things to continue so the Lord will come back sooner) and it invokes fear in His return. Some claim this view makes people want to evangelize more, but I have yet to see that to actually prove true. It leaves us hopeless. It leaves us to play victim. It leaves us with a sense of humanity being flat out evil, and all we can do is sit by and watch until Christ returns.

The songs on the Postmillennial list do just the opposite. They call us to get up and fight a war! It calls us to action. If we want hope in this world, then we need to go create it and build it up, and by doing so, we speed up the Day of Christ’s return. We are not the victim, but rather, evil is the victim, and we will destroy it. This view leaves us with the hope that through Christ’s servants, we will make the world better and better until it’s perfect. It leaves us with a mission. It leaves us with an understanding that although the earth is sick, it doesn’t mean it will stay that way before Christ returns.

If Premilliennial is on the far negative side, and Postmillenial is on the far positive side, then Amillennial is right smack dab in the middle of the two views. This list leaves us understanding that the world is fallen, and it will remain fallen until Jesus returns. It’s not better or worse, “it is what it is”, but that doesn’t mean we give up and say “oh well”. Christ still works through His people in a fallen world. He still calls us to make a difference for Him and He still calls us to help transform others through the power of His Holy Spirit. The Kingdom is here and now, and anyone can partake of it, as we wait for God to inaugurate His Kingdom, and that is our hope. Our hearts anticipate the day of His return and our hearts glow with joy. And with this in our hearts, it motivates us to do what we can, in our corner of the world through His strength. We are Christ’s beacons.

If you read that last paragraph and thought, “Well isn’t that what the rest of The Bible teaches?” pay attention to that question. It’s an excellent one!

I believe when it comes to Eschatology we should have two responses: 1.) Hope and 2.) Mission. Eschatology should spur a response similar to:

“Rewrite This Tragedy” Sara Groves

“Heal The World” Michael Jackson (Do I really have Michael Jackson on my Eschatological Playlist? Yes, yes I do. And just to add a thought, it’s a Christian song by a Christian artist who sings of violence and war, but it’s a non-Christian song by a non-Christian artist who sings of swords turning into plowshares.)

“God of This City” Chris Tomlin

“Do Something” Matthew West.

If we aren’t sparked with a mission or given an inexpressible hope when we talk about Eschatology, then chances are we need to reevaluate our belief system. Jesus never used a message of fear/being scared or hopelessness in His first coming to bring people to Him, and I don’t believe He would ever use it in His Second Coming. To say the two are different is to say God changes character.

There are other songs on my playlist that are worth mentioning. These songs generally speak about Revelation and/or Jesus’ Second Coming without any particular view in mind:

“Glorious Day” Casting Crowns

“Glorious Unfolding” Steven Curtis Chapman

“Revelation Song” Kari Jobe

“The Throne” Michael W. Smith

“Wedding Day” Casting Crowns

If you are looking for some music that is neutral to all the views, but will take you through the book of Revelation, then I highly recommend Michael Card’s album, “Unveiled Hope.” Many of the lyrics he sings come straight from Scripture. Plus “City of Doom” is just plain fun, and “New Jerusalem” will give you Goosebumps! J

As you read this, I hope things start to ‘click’ on how vital it is that we understand and know what we believe about Eschatology.   It does, in fact, affect how we live today! Do we live with hopelessness as the victim? “Woe is us, the world is getting worse.” Do we live with the power to change the world for the better until it’s perfect? “It’s off to battle we go to take down the enemy!” Do we live with the understanding, the world is what it is, but that doesn’t stop us from being Christ? “Am I living like Christ between the now and not yet?”

Granted, we may feel all of these at different times, but what is your initial response to the following?

What is your immediate reaction to when we read a negative story in the newspaper?  There’s been a school shooting or another bomb went off in the Middle East… or perhaps a plane crash or a tornado hit… or there is another story about human trafficking… Is your immediate response:

“Leaving Eden” Mentality?  “Onward Christian Soldiers” Mentality?  “A Little More Time to Love” Mentality?  Do you feel called to “Rewrite This Tragedy”?

How you answer that question says a lot about what you believe about end times.

I do not own any of these songs and the categories of the songs do not reflect the opinions of the artists


Man Reading Book and Sitting on Bookshelf in Library

Eschatology 101: Reading Lessons

“A classic is something everybody wants to have read, but no one wants to read.” –Mark Twain

Last week Deb introduced us to the subject of Eschatology. If you haven’t read it yet, be sure to start here.

Everyone seems to have an opinion on Revelation, but few people actually understand what the Book is about, who the original audience was, and why the author chose to use such cryptic language. Before we consider the merits of each end-times view, we have to understand apocalyptic literature.

 What is apocalyptic literature?

The book of Revelation is considered apocalyptic literature. A few other books in the Bible have apocalyptic passages. Apocalyptic literature is a certain style of Jewish writing that developed in the time of the Exile and remained popular through the Middle Ages. It was particularly popular during times of persecution. In fact, “every age of great political agitation had its apocalypses,” (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Apocalyptic literature was used as an encouragement for believers because it focused on the rewards of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked. ” This…was for the purpose of awakening in the hearts of their readers, who were living in a period of gloom and bitter trial, that belief in the blissful future promised them, which filled their own souls. For in times of oppression and persecution the apocalypse was essentially the literary medium through which the minds of the faithful were appealed to….” –Jewish Encyclopedia.

Characteristics of the genre include:

  • Time divided into 2 ages: the present age ruled by Satan, and the age to come ruled by God
  • Claims to reveal new or hidden knowledge
  • Uses prophetic vision to “see” the future
  • Uses mysterious and symbolic language
  • Authors use pseudonyms
  • God’s victory over evil
  • The sovereignty of God
  • Preoccupation with the future
  • Emphasis on resurrection and/or afterlife which will ensure final justice
  • Messianic expectations

The basic message of apocalyptic literature is the promise of God’s future victory over evil. It was written in times of great distress. The promises of coming victory encouraged believers to remain faithful. They would see justice for all their suffering, even if not in this lifetime.

There are several apocalyptic passages in the Old Testament (Daniel, Zechariah, parts of Isaiah, Joel, Ezekiel) and the New (Matthew, 1 Corinthians, 2 Thessalonians, 2 Peter, Jude). There are also extra-Biblical apocalypses.


Why does it matter what literature Revelation was written as? Anytime we try to read and understand a passage, it’s important to know what literature it’s written in. You wouldn’t read a phone book the same way you read the daily comics. You wouldn’t read an instruction manual the same way you read a love poem. You have to understand the literature of what you’re reading.

Psalm 6:6 “I am weary with my sighing; every night I make my bed swim, I dissolve my couch with me tears.” The Psalms are poetry. If you do not understand this you might think that David had an eye disorder that caused him to cry so much.

Proverbs are short, wise sayings that are generally observed to be true, but not always true. “A generous man will be prosperous” (Proverbs 11:25). It’s true most of the time, but there are some exceptions: a generous man who does not prosper, or a prosperous person who is not generous.

How did the Early Church interpret apocalyptic literature?

The end times view of the early church was an emphasis on the immanent return of Christ, and a belief in a literal thousand year reign, known as chialism. If the early church fathers had any end times views besides the immanent return of Christ it was premillennial. They believed Christ would return before the millennium.


The prevailing end times view of the church has been Amillennialism—the view that the millennium referred to in Revelation is the current church age and will eventually culminate in the return of Christ to earth.

This view relies on a largely symbolic interpretation of Revelation. As apocalyptic literature it doesn’t give a timeline of upcoming events. Instead it is about the conflict of good and evil and the promise that God will one day prevail over evil and faithful believers will be rewarded.


Another popular view of the end times is postmillennialism. This became popular during the Industrial Revolution in the 1870s and remained popular until World War 1. This is the view that the return of Christ will happen after the millennium, a time when all or most of the earth has become Christian and the Kingdom of God is realized on earth.

This view also relies on a symbolic interpretation of Revelation. It is very similar to amillennialism. Revelation is not to be taken literally, but understood as a promise of God’s coming victory over evil. The difference is that Postmillennialism teaches that there will be a universal acceptance of the gospel on earth before Christ’s return, while Amillennialism teaches that Satan will not be defeated until the return of Christ.


This is the view that Christ will return before the millennium, a time of peace and acceptance of the gospel, which will come to an end with a final rebellion. A form of this view was held by the early church, but was largely rejected until the rise of Dispensationalism with the teachings of Darby in the 1830s. This is currently a popular theory, especially known for its teaching of a rapture of the Church.

Instead of seeing the symbolism of Revelation as a general conflict between good and evil, Premillennialism relies on symbols to have direct correlations. It is also more literal in its interpretation of the millennium mentioned in Revelation 20.


So you can see that:

  • Revelation is consistent with other kinds of apocalyptic literature
  • Type of literature is important for understanding interpretation
  • Different interpretations of Revelation have led to different views of the end times

So, how do you read Revelation? As a static timeline of events? As a fluid narrative of the big conflict between good and evil? Somewhere in between? Does it matter that Revelation has been included in the canon (the final list of books in the Bible) and should it affect how we interpret the book?

Eschatology pic 1

Eschatology 101: The Big “E” Word

Throughout this month, Ruth and I will be alternating in our blogs on the topic of Eschatology, which happens to be one of our favorite topics to discuss. This week’s blog is going to be explaining Eschatological Terminology.

So, what exactly is Eschatology? Sometimes the easiest way to understand theology (actually most of the time), is to break down big words. It’s like English class all over again! YAY! The prefix “Escha” means “last things” and the suffix “ology”, of course means the “study of”, so therefore, Eschatology’s definition is “the study of last things”. Eschatology spans from the question of “What happens after I die?” to “What will happen at end times?”   For this series, we will be focusing on the part of Eschatology in regards to the end times.

There are four traditional views of Eschatology: Premillennialism, Postmillennialism, Amillennialism and Panmillennialism. So let’s break down some more words so that this is easier to read: millennial is “1,000” in Latin. Why the number 1,000 you say? In Revelation 20, we read about Satan being bound and Christ’s reign on earth to be 1,000 years.

Premillennialism is the belief Christ will return before the 1,000 years.  This view is pessimistic and focuses a lot on the negative things that are going on in the world.  It’s catch phrase is “Be Ready”.  Within Premilliennialism we have two different views: Historical and Dispensationalism. Historical has been defined above. Dispensational (Dispensation means “age”) is the belief that The Bible can be divided up into 7 Dispensations. Dispensationalism is unique in that it is the only belief that includes the concept of a rapture, a beast coming out of the Middle East, a literal 7 year tribulation, discusses a pre-trib, post-trib, or mid-trib, and mostly, the only view presented when it comes to the Evangelical Church today.

Postmillennialism is the belief that Christ will return after the 1,000 years.  This view is optimistic and focuses a lot on the postive things that are going on in the world.   It’s catch phrase is, “Ushering in the Kingdom”.

Amillennialism is the belief that there is no literal 1,000 years (because the prefix “a” means “no”).  This view accepts the world as it is and focuses on what we can do to make it better. It’s catch phrase is “The Now and Not Yet”.

Panmillennialism is the belief that God is in control so we don’t have to worry about the end.  This view is indifferent to the end times.  It’s catch phrase is, “It will all pan out in the end”.

Eschatology pie chart

 Among the Universal Church, considering all sects and denominations, Amillennialism is the most popular belief.

Now, you might be wondering why Revelation 20, has such a weight on it. What about the chapters before it? Well, there’s different ways in which to read Revelation (which Ruth will explain apocalyptic lit next week, and will expound on this more), but how you interpret Revelation, will usually determine what millennial view you hold. There are four traditional ways in which Revelation is interpreted: Historical, Futuristic, Preterist or Ideal.

Reading Revelation from a Historical point of view means a person will correlate parts of the past, present, and future events and specifically link those events to the ones in Scripture. So, for example, a person might say a specific chapter in Revelation is about the Kennedy assassination, and another chapter may be about the Missile Crisis, and so on and so forth.

A Preterist interprets Revelation similar to the rest of The Bible, by going back to the time that John the Revelator wrote the book (traditionally viewed either 70AD or 90AD) and what was going on with the people of the day in Rome.

Futuristic interpretation reads all events happening in the future.

In the Ideal view, there is no time or history attached to the book, but rather, it generally speaks of the fight between good and evil at any time or in any culture.

Traditionally, Postmillennialists use Ideal or Preterist interpretation. Amillennialist traditionally uses Preterest. Premillennialists typically use Futuristic. Panmillennialist use no specific measure of interpretation, actually, they may not even care what’s written in Revelation (to be honest). Now, to create a healthy view of end times, we actually use all of these interpretive types, however, I associated the type that is used in the majority of the text in correlation with the particular viewpoint. For example, Amillennialists will more likely than not, use Futuristic and Ideal in interpretation, but for the majority of the text, they use Preterest.

For a moment, I want to return to the concept of Dispensational Premillennialism. Like I said, it’s usually the ONLY view typically presented in the Evangelical Church today. However, if you are regular reader of this blog, you will know that just because something is the only thing you’ve been taught, doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s Biblical. Two week ago, I dealt with the subject of the rapture, which you can read about here.

Eschatology scary for pets too

I knew there was something I forgot to tell Mordecai and Herby about! :-)

However, this is not the only reason Dispensationalism hasn’t proven itself to be a solid theology. Here are some more reasons:

1.) Dispensationalism isn’t hermeneutically sound. When we study any book in The Bible, we must first ask ourselves some important questions: who was the author? When was it written? Who was it written to? What was the culture like at the time it was written? What type of literary form is it? These kinds of questions absolutely have to be answered in order to take Scripture in context. Typically, people can answer these questions in various Biblical books, until they hit Revelation. Then suddenly it’s written from John the Revelator to some group of future people who are “left behind”. It’s similar to if my grandfather wrote a love letter to my grandmother about the bombing at Pearl Harbor and how he helped clean it up during WWII.  But instead of reading the letter in that context, I read it as though my grandfather is writing directly to me a letter about a bombing that will take place in the far future and I need to be ready for it.

2.) If all these events are happening in a far off future, then what does Revelation matter to me? What did it mean to the original readers in Rome? Absolutely nothing! In other words, we can read 65 books of The Bible and gain wisdom and lessons from the words written inside; however, that 66th book has absolute no importance for me. In fact, I don’t even have to read it, if I don’t want to.

3.) Speaking of The Bible as a whole, why am I interpreting Revelation about the future but the other 65 books of The Bible are interpreted completely different… except for maybe the end of Daniel. Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Jeremiah were all prophecies but we don’t read them futuristically, so why do we do that with Revelation?

4.) Dispensationalism is based greatly on sensationalism. It’s supposed to make you scared, and save the tar out of you! Did Jesus use fear to scare anyone? Did Paul use fear to scare anyone? Nope, because that would be manipulation.

5.) Hollywood endorses it. That’s self-explanatory…

Eschatology left behind

6.) It promotes racism of Middle Eastern people, war, violence, vengeance, etc… All things Jesus spoke directly against in the Gospels.

7.) If we need a magazines, movies, books, newspapers, CNN, FOX, school shootings, wars, bombings, famines, injustice, etc… to be able to understand how The Bible directly applies to our lives today–We’re doing it wrong!

Let’s remember, just because it’s a popular view, does not make it a Biblical view. There is Spoon-Fed Pop Culture Theology out there, and you don’t have to disgust it just because it’s all you’ve ever heard all your life. I too was raised on Dispensationalism. I too had to wrestle with Scripture. I too struggled to work out what Revelation was all about. It was hard and it took time, but one thing is for sure, I never regretted it! In fact, it solidified by believes, it cleared up my thinking so I was enabled to actually understand Revelation for myself with having to read LaHaye, Jenkins, Haggie, or anyone else out there. And it handed me conviction and most importantly, gave me HOPE. If I had to do it all that theological processing all over again, I would do it in a heartbeat! Wrestling with Scripture is always worth your time!


Don’t be afraid to wrestle…

Eschatology hope


a integrity

Integrity in Ministry

This week we have Beth as our guest blogger:

A life characterized by holiness should be the aim of every Christian. Some, however, never recognize the value of this endeavor, choosing instead to settle for a half-hearted experience of faith which is characterized by ongoing struggle and frequent defeat. John Wesley, quoted in New Testament Holiness, summarized this condition in this manner:

From long experience and observation, I am inclined to think that whoever finds redemption in the blood of Jesus—whoever is justified—has the choice of walking in the higher or the lower path. I believe the Holy Spirit at that time sets before him the “more excellent way”, and incites him to walk therein—to choose the narrowest path in the narrow way—to aspire after the heights and depths of holiness—after the entire image of God. But if he do not accept this offer, he insensibly declines into the lower order of Christians; he still goes on in what may be called a good way, serving God in his degree, and finds mercy in the close of life through the blood of the covenant.’ (Cook, p.3)

I choose the higher path. My personal life mission, “I will focus on personal spiritual growth and development which will allow me to assist others in doing so in their own lives”, is a guiding principle which reminds me of my obligation and privilege to exemplify integrity as I remember that my life impacts that of those around me. Choosing the higher path (developing Christian virtues, godly character, and an uncompromising sense of moral direction) undergirded by the Holy Spirit is an intentional, deliberate submission of my will to God.

While studying at Asbury Seminary, my Vocation of Ministry class explored some of the elements which have led to personal and moral failure, particularly as it relates to ministry. These failures exist in the lives of church members, of course, but are much more shattering in the life of the pastor. I still recall the sense of confusion and disillusionment I felt as a young college student when I learned that my youth pastor had left his wife and children for another woman. Decades later, this act still has an impact on that congregation, and on my own ministry.

So, how may I be intentional about cultivating integrity in my life and ministry so that my influence helps rather than hinders the walk of others? The answer, I believe, lies in the cultivation of personal holiness and full release of selfhood to the power of God. Built on the foundation of a personal holiness experience, developing the Christian virtues in a deliberate manner is the goal. These habits, nurtured consistently over time and with the help of the Holy Spirit, will build what ultimately becomes our character.

As we do this, however, we discover that “we face a battle with sin in our desire to develop habits of virtue” (Holeman, 1, p. 3). The deadly sin of pride is one of the first to be addressed in this battle. When we rely solely on our own strength, with a sense that we are immune to the temptations around us, we set ourselves up for impending failure. Thomas Cook, in New Testament Holiness, rightly warns, “It is a mistake to suppose that there is any state of grace this side of heaven which puts a Christian where he is exempt from temptation. So long as a soul is on probation, it will be tested by solicitations to sin” (Cook, p. 12).

An exaggerated view of our own abilities and strengths will lead, as Proverbs 16:18 states, to our destruction. This, for me, is my biggest struggle – I am often at fault in thinking that I can do everything in my own strength. Philippians 4:13 was my “life verse” as a young person, and for whatever reason, I tended to abridge the text, overlooking at times the all important “through Christ” component. This is a recipe for defeat – which I often experienced and was compelled to bring to the Lord for restoration. In their pivotal treatise, Betrayal of Trust: Confronting and Preventing Clergy Sexual Misconduct, Grenz & Bell address this specifically in the area of self-sufficiency that leads to sexual failure, “The pastor who does not understand his vulnerability is either naïve or consciously courting a fall” (p. 55), but I think it applies to all areas of life.

In Betrayal of Trust, they rightly pinpoint one key factor in moral failure – stagnation in one’s prayer and devotional life. Such “spiritual coldness” (p. 59) should be a warning sign to a Christian leader that they are becoming more vulnerable, and are in need of intentional intervention. This may be done through the ministry of an accountability partner or group which is deliberate in its regular and consistent challenge for self-examination.

When we acknowledge our weakness and see ourselves realistically, we recognize that we need the help of God, as well as that of the faith community to stand firm. This essential element of community provides the face-to-face accountability that is so necessary to effective spiritual growth and development. I have found this helpful as I have honestly confessed my own struggles and challenges in the safety of a recently developing mentoring partnership with another female pastor.

While moral failure in the area of sexuality is the most shocking and damaging, failures in any area of virtue can be detrimental to our ministry. Each must be carefully nurtured and developed to build godly character. It is out of this consistency that our calling may be lived out before our congregation. I agree with Grenz & Bell that integrity in the life of the pastor is the most important element of who he or she is and is a prerequisite for the ordained office (p. 60). The old adage which I have heard spoken on many occasions to the ministry students I help train of, “the most important thing you can do is to love your people”, is incorrect. Our most important role is to live a transparent life of integrity which exemplifies the power of the Holy Spirit over and in us. It is out of this life of integrity that we may truly love our people and seek the best for them in our ministry.

It is in this outgrowth of personal holiness that social holiness extends in an awareness of the needs and struggles of others – both from a spiritual and material perspective. Wesley defines Christian Perfection as “loving God with all our heart, mind, soul, and strength. This implies that no wrong temper, none contrary to love, remains in the soul; and that all the thoughts, words, and actions, are governed by pure love” (Wesley, #19). As Jesus taught, His followers were to be in right relationship with God and with others. When both of these relationships are guided by the virtue of love, we cannot ignore the needs and circumstances of those around us.

Compassion makes us sense the pain of poor immigrants, the despair of homeless people, the loneliness of prisoners of war, the suffering of the unclothed and unsheltered – to say nothing of the silent rage of victims of discrimination in every walk of life (Muto & Van Kamm, p. 98).

Once we are aware of these conditions and inequities, we are then challenged to take steps to address them. James 1:27 enjoins us to care for the vulnerable as we live holy lives. A life of integrity seeks opportunities to advocate for others who cannot speak for themselves. It is in these experiences that we learn how dear and indispensable is the community of faith. God uses us to bring comfort and care to the least of these, His brethren.   As an ordained minister for more than thirty years, I have had multiple experiences in this area. Beyond the typical material assistance (food, energy, rent), the most fulfilling have been when I have been outside of the “normal” pastoral or congregational role. For example, when I was called upon to represent a battered woman to the court system so that she could obtain the care and protection she and her children needed, or when I was part of a state-wide task force that raised awareness of human trafficking and promoted legislation for its prosecution. These were tangible acts of mercy in which God allowed me to participate – they brought a great sense of satisfaction and completeness in ministry that complemented the usual congregational activities.

We are not in this alone – we are enabled to work together to be His hands in the world. Guinness, in The Call, describes this as being “bound together by a covenant and living out a corporate calling that both complements and transcends their calling as individuals” (p. 97). Being a participant in what God is doing in the world includes obedience to His call to meet the needs of the world around us. When we do this together, in community, we understand the vitality and importance of the body of Christ of which we are a part.

All of these aspects of calling – from these here described – to the preaching – to the counseling – to the weddings and funerals – to the endless and ongoing catalog of duties on the unwritten “to do” list of the pastor – can be undermined in one moment of unguarded speech or action that lacks the presence of Christian virtue. With that reality in mind, I consider the simple prayer a friend of mine voiced on her Facebook® recently, “Father in heaven, today I give you all that I am. I invite You into the weak places in my life so that You can turn them into strengths” (Tami Rogers Smith). By starting each day in this mindset, may I also be open to the guiding of the Holy Spirit as He helps me examine myself through His eyes.


Cook, T. (database 2006). New Testament Holiness. WordSearch Corp.

Grenz, S. J. and Bell, R. D. (2001). Betrayal of Trust: Confronting and Preventing Clergy Sexual Misconduct. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

Guinness, O. (1998). The Call: Finding and fulfilling the central purpose of your life.     Nashville, TN: Word.

Holeman, T. (n. d.). Lectures 1, 2, and 3 – Cardinal virtues and deadly sins. Prepared for Vocation of Ministry Course, Asbury Theological Seminary. Wilmore, KY.

Muto, S & van Kamm, A. (1994). Divine guidance. Ann Arbor, MI: Charis Books.

Wesley, J. (database 2006). A plain account of Christian perfection. WordSearch Corp.